## 10 Assembling Spacetime

The initial precipitation of spacetime quanta within dimensionless energy would lead at first to a random, chaotic, and fragmented spacetime foam before quanta became organized into a regular lattice. The first appearance of an isolated quantum of Planck diameter would create around it a transient energy wave across the diameter of the quantum. An energy release of this wavelength represents the formation of a Planck mass, which is calculated from the same universal constants as the Planck length and the Planck time. This is the smallest mass a black hole can have. I assume the quantum would be distorted in such a way by the gravity of the Planck mass that the two would combine to yield a quantum enveloping a Planck mass.

As more quanta precipitated in a local region, their numbers would push dimensionless energy aside. Quanta would now emerge in the interstitial space between other quanta, no longer producing the intense energy disturbance comparable to that of an isolated quantum. This would prevent further production of Planck masses in the local region. Planck mass formation would continue to occur at the periphery of emerging local regions. But small two-dimensional rafts of quanta would clump into three-dimensional structures, and these would coalesce in turn into a single three-dimensional matrix or lattice. Eventually this lattice would grow to the size of the visible universe and beyond. Planck mass formation may continue at the periphery of the universe as it continues to expand.

Random time fluctuations in this structure in local clumps of quanta would gain coherence by a cooperative process that would lead to a single recurring pulse of time throughout the growing lattice structure. A unified four-dimensional spacetime would come into existence. When this occurred, the Planck masses within the growing lattice would bring gravity to spacetime. At the same instant, the formation of spacetime would allow the Planck masses to evaporate rapidly in a blast of radiation that would go through the phase transitions leading to the present universe and the particles in it.

Updated 3/31/2017