## 11 The Structure of Spacetime

After these initial energy disturbances, spherical quanta of spacetime are coalesced into a stable four-dimensional lattice. In doing so they create a new structure within eternity itself. A spacetime quantum is like a bubble, a spherical surface of zero thickness within eternity. Over this aspect of the lattice, formless energy gains two spatial dimensions and one of time. This enables the energy to exert a negative pressure on the bubbles. The pressure is negative because it is pushing inwards instead of outwards. The quanta will remain circular because the pressure is uniform across their surface. The lattice is created as the continuous energy in the interstices between quanta packs the quanta tightly into a three-dimensional array. As packing of quanta occurs, formless energy itself remains within the interstitial space between spheres.

In a tightly-packed regular lattice of spheres, one sphere shares points of contact with 12 other spheres. In a random lattice the number of contacts is likely to be less and variable. Away from the points of contact, the spherical surface of a quantum faces interstitial energy infiltrating from the formless energy of eternity. In a regular lattice, this interstitial region would amount to 26 per cent of the total lattice volume if the lattice were tightly packed. However, while close packing can produce regularity, some randomness will remain in the spacetime lattice. There was no regular substrate for the lattice to form on initially, and it developed by the coalescence of random clumps. Furthermore, the subsequent expansion of spacetime is observed to take place uniformly throughout its volume. This implies the insertion of new quanta throughout the lattice, adding further randomness. In a random lattice, the interstitial space may amount to 36 per cent or more of the total volume, making it a second universe.

The shape of the lattice is also changed by gravity in local regions. I assume that spacetime quanta are rigid under the forces of the standard model for particle interactions. These forces are the electromagnetic force of light, which holds atoms and molecules together, and the two nuclear forces holding atomic nuclei together. The fourth force, gravity, draws together all masses. Its effect on elementary particles is extremely small compared with the other forces, but as the number of particles increases its effect becomes dominant. Gravity shapes planets, stars, and galaxies, and controls their motion. I assume it does this, consistent with relativity theory, by distorting the shape of spacetime quanta. As quanta provide the path of mass through spacetime, the shaping of spacetime by mass steers the path of mass. This is visible in the motion of planets. This gravitational shaping of the quanta means that the lattice reproduces a map of the gravitational field in three dimensions, providing common reference frame for particles moving within it. Absolute rest for relativity purposes can be defined as being stationary in the gravitational field.

In the distortion of quanta by gravity, the relationship between the new quantum length step and the new quantum time step continues to be the speed of light, which remains a universal constant.

The distortion in quanta caused by mass rearranges their contact points, so producing a preferential direction of movement corresponding to the direction of the gravitational field. For example, the quanta encircling the Earth will be arranged in concentric spheres centered on the Earth (if fields of other planets and the sun are ignored). Consequently, the quanta will be narrowest at the end pointing towards the center of the Earth. This brings the contact points at that end closer together, producing preferential movement of particles in that direction, giving rise to the gravitational equations of motion. The quanta will also be compressed in the direction of the gravitational field, giving rise to gravitational shrinking and time dilation.

Updated 3/31/2017

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