## 12 The Dual Universe

The volume of the interstitial region containing the dimensionless interstitial energy is close to that of spacetime. The result is a dual universe: two universes in intimate contact. The spacetime universe has four dimensions and contains gravity plus the other three forces, together with particles of matter and radiation. The interstitial universe of eternity has formless energy without gravity or dimensions except at an interface of zero thickness with spacetime. At that interface it encounters the spherical surfaces of spacetime quanta and gains two dimensions in space and one of time. In this aspect, it is a three- dimensional universe. Like spacetime, the second universe has a minimum dimension but this is expressed as the Planck area of a spacetime quantum, being the smallest part of a continuous surface.

Because the second universe is initially dimensionless, and therefore massless, its infiltration of spacetime might be thought to add no mass to spacetime. But it gains three dimensions, at the interface with the first. Because of this it can exert a negative pressure at the surface of the membrane separating the two universes. As such, it will add mass to the first universe and may be the source of the dark energy accelerating expansion of the universe.

My present interest in this energy at the spacetime interface, however, is that it may act as a source of potential energy, like that influencing the movement of a pendulum or rock. Potential energy provided by interstitial energy at the dual universe interface could interact across the interface with the kinetic energy of a particle moving in spacetime. By a transformation of energy from one form into another at the interface, as in the pendulum or rock, the paths of particles like photons through spacetime may be modified. I think such modification is essential if light is to travel in straight lines in the way we observe. And the energy in the interstitial space could provide it.

Photons and electrons are the particles of most interest in describing the world we encounter. Photons are elementary particles of light, and electrons, elementary particles carrying a negative electrical charge. These two particles interact and are involved in all of the properties of the world we are familiar with, apart from radioactivity and the atomic nucleus. I will focus on the photon and the electron, so as to cover the material world described with great accuracy by the mathematics of quantum electrodynamics.

##### Updated: 3/31/2017

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