Dual Universe: Eternity | Spacetime

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13 Origins of Randomness

Why is modification of particle paths in quantized spacetime essential? We expect particles to respond to external forces and follow paths in spacetime dictated by Newton’s or Einstein’s laws. The spacetime lattice provides the medium in which the correct path may be achieved. However, the lattice can cause particles to deviate in a random manner. A photon might be traveling through the spacetime lattice at an angle of 45 degrees under the forces present. It may suddenly find that the contact between its present quantum and the next is 20 degrees off track. Such a discrepancy will appear in varying degrees and directions as it passes from quantum to quantum in the lattice. This offers a source for the small random deviations accepted by quantum mechanics and attributed to the devilry of imaginary particles.

If uncorrected, deviations caused by the lattice would likely grow as the number of quanta traversed by a photon or electron increases. Even when traveling a millionth of a millimeter, a particle passes through some 1026 quanta. To travel the correct path satisfying the laws of motion requires that deviations along the path be corrected in some way. And this correction must not violate the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.  

The behavior of photons passing through the quantized spacetime lattice can be demonstrated by an experiment that makes use of a screen with a 1-cm hole in it to interrupt monochromatic light from a lamp. To detect the emerging light, a video camera linked to a visual display is placed beyond the screen. At normal visual intensities, a disc of light with the diameter of the hole appears on the display, suggesting that light travels in a straight line.

 The randomness in the photon paths is revealed when the hole is replaced with one less than 0.1 mm in diameter. The intensity of the light must be lowered until single flashes occur intermittently on the display. These appear at random positions and random times. They represent the individual photons that in large quantities made up the 1-cm light beam. But the individual photons are displaying the properties of discrete particles. All have the same energy, each has its own separate trajectory, reaching the sensor at its own angle. The photons in a narrow, low-intensity beam of light do not travel in the direction of a single straight line. Rather they are randomized in direction in the way to be expected in the spacetime lattice. The emergence of a straight path when the aperture is large suggests that with sufficient distance across the beam some process at the Planck level returns deviating photons back to an average straight-line trajectory.

 As more photons pass through the sub-millimeter hole, the initial random array of flashes sums into a smooth distribution. Most photons have clustered around the straight-line path through the hole. The few left fall off in numbers smoothly to the edge of the emerging pattern. These are the photons still moving at angles to the central path. The larger the angle, the fewer the photons. Some are diffracted by the edge of the hole.

I suggest the principle of least action, which functions as a universal law comparable to energy conservation, provides the steering that brings the majority of photons to the straight-line trajectory.

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