Dual Universe: Eternity | Spacetime

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14 Least Action Principle

The problem in correcting the path of a photon that undergoes a random fluctuation is that a new corrected path must be produced after each fluctuation, or at least after each short sequence of fluctuations. Otherwise, the photon will wander too far away from the proper path. But the future course of the path from a new random point is not immediately known. Following the principle of least action leads to the correct path under such conditions. The principle appears as fundamental an aspect of the universe as the law of conservation of energy. It holds that when a particle is steered by two forms of energy, like the potential energy a particle gains in a gravitational field and the kinetic energy it gains from movement, it follows a path that minimizes the action of the two types of energy. That is, the path constantly adjusts itself after a diversion so that the overall path uses less energy than any other path. This is the path of least action. The universe uses energy efficiently. (A detailed description of the principal is given by Richard Feynman in his published lecture series on physics.)

 The principle of least action therefore lends itself to correction of lattice randomness, because it governs the entire path of a particle. For guidance, a particle is on the least-action path when a small deviation has very little effect on the action. Furthermore, maintaining the path of least action over each minute section of a path produces a complete path following the least action principle.

These two features provide a means for steering a particle subject to random deviations in the spacetime lattice into the future by uses of kinetic and potential energy balancing across the interface of the dual universes. It is by this means that out of all the trillions of paths it could follow, a particle achieves the one that incurs the least action – the path that on average is that prescribed by classical forces.

The least action principle can be demonstrated in the interaction between the potential energy and kinetic energy of a rock thrown up in the atmosphere. To produce the proper result, the experimenter must account for external effects such as lift and drag. But at the elementary particle level, such forces are absent, and the principle of least action is directly applicable.  My assumption is that in a composite object like a rock, the individual particles are following the principle of least action. However, the volume of such an object is primarily in the space between the particles that make it up. So the individual deviations of its particles are extremely small compared with their spacing. As a result, the deviations of the elementary particles averages out to produce the smooth overall path of the rock.

Within spacetime, a photon starts on a path through the lattice after an interaction such as emission from an atom. This gives it a specific kinetic energy and momentum. In the spacetime lattice, it will quickly encounter a quantum that cannot provide the contact with the next quantum needed to maintain the correct path. When a photon must transfer at a contact requiring a deviation from the correct path, it will need a specific increment of momentum to change its direction and of energy to maintain the deviation. Otherwise, the particle cannot continue to move through the lattice. (It is convenient when dealing with particles at this level to treat energy and momentum as a package, energy-momentum.) It was the need to account for the energy-momentum providing such deviations that led to the conception of virtual particles. In the dual-universe model, I assume the interstitial space at the quantum surface is the source for the required increment of energy-momentum. This would be available across the spacetime membrane, derived from a fluctuation of potential energy in the negative pressure.

Updated: 3/25/2017

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