## 21 Non-Local Connections

An extended region of the guiding wave fluctuates to minimize the repeated random deviations occurring in a particle moving through spacetime. It is fluctuating in a way that instantaneously changes its pattern over a broad area of the spacetime membrane. That is, different regions in the wave are behaving as if their patterns of energy were correlated, over distances greater than can be connected by light. In fact, in guiding photons, these fluctuations are moving at the speed of light while coordinating their pattern over a distance that cannot be connected via light in time to provide the correlation. Such effects are termed non-local.

Non-local behavior (Einsteins’s "spooky action at a distance") is increasingly accepted in theory and experiment. It is recognized as present when there is a predictable correlation in the changes of behavior of particles not in causal contact. This is observed between entangled particles that are acting jointly as a single system. Their correlated behavior observes a conservation law that would be broken if the particles did not act jointly and concurrently to preserve the law. The most conspicuous evidence for non-locality comes from correlations between particles over distances that cannot be traveled by light in the interval of the correlation.

However, non-locality is also essential to a single particle. It is implicit in the mathematics of quantum mechanics, where the probable behavior of a particle is accurately described by a wave function that spreads instantaneously throughout spacetime. The non-local nature of this wave function was confirmed in an experiment by Maria Fuwa and colleagues between Australia and Japan.

Non-local behavior involving conservation of angular momentum has been observed between particles with paired spins. These are created when a particle with no spin decays into two particles that each have spin and fly apart. To conserve angular momentum, these two particles must spin in opposite directions so that their different spins sum to zero. Therefore, to maintain this momentum balance, a change in the axis of spin of one particle requires an instantaneous change in the opposite direction by the other, no matter how distant their separation. Experiments confirming this have been carried out by Alain Aspect and others using polarized photons, over distances that could not be traveled by light in the interval that spin correlation occurred.

##### Updated 3/31/2017

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