Dual Universe: Eternity | Spacetime

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22 Dark Energy, Dark Matter

There remains the question of the possible identity of the dimensionless energy essential to the precipitation, assembly and expansion of a lattice of spacetime quanta. A possible candidate is dark energy [33], hypothesized as causing accelerated expansion of the universe. Dark energy interacts with matter in the opposite way to gravitation. It appears to be a negative pressure that causes expansion of the universe. Dark energy acts in general relativity like the cosmological constant  proposed as a property of the vacuum [34, 35]. This is the constant that Einstein put into his equation when he thought that the universe was static, and which he subsequently modified to take account of the expansion observed by Hubble.

Dark energy is not diluted with expansion and remains uniformly distributed throughout space at a  low density. Even though its density is low, dark energy may form about 68 per cent of the mass-energy of the universe, because of its ubiquity. This presence of mass suggests that dark energy is not the entire dimensionless energy of eternity, which is massless and produces no gravitational effects. The possibility arises, however, that the encounter of this energy with the interstitial surface of spacetime allows it to gain two dimensions of space and one of time that do provide it with mass energy. That is, the dimensionless energy exerting negative pressure at the dual universe interface may be the source of dark energy.

If it is, it will be increasing as the universe expands. The way this expansion occurs, with velocity increasing with distance from the observer, indicates that the expansion is due to creation of new spacetime quanta uniformly throughout the universe, with a constant rate of creation. This will cause the area of the spacetime quanta, and consequently the negative pressure, to increase at the same rate.

This global feature of the surficial energy of eternity acts over eons, and suggests that may be misleading to view dimensionless energy solely in connection with its dynamic properties, involved in correction of particle paths throughout the spacetime lattice. This viewpoint focuses only on its dynamic properties, involving the extremely rapid fluctuations in the potential energy of negative pressure acting over minute distances. But a role in a slow increase in the rate of expansion of the universe as a whole, shifts attention to the quasi-static properties of negative pressure that function over  cosmic distances. It is possible that this surface energy may exhibit further properties at the intermediate scale of local regions of the universe, such as galaxies. If there is a dynamic kinetic-potential energy interaction at the spacetime interface, there is the possibility of a quasi-static mass-mass interaction across the interface also.

In this case, the mass of denser regions of matter particles in spacetime would attract the energy across the dual universe interface and create locally dense regions of dimensionless energy there. This would be equivalent to the appearance of an invisible mass added to an existing accumulation of mass. Clumps of particles occupying large amounts of space and drawn together by mutual gravitational energy field would create an addition gravitational energy field at the spacetime interface, tending to accelerate the contraction. This would modify the evolution of the large-scale structure of the universe.

A similar effect would occur in galaxies. In fact,  the presence of dark matter was first proposed to account for the speed at which galaxies rotate, which is far higher than can be expected from the observable mass present. It is also considered essential for the formation of the large-scale structure of the universe that we observe in the distribution of galaxies. Its other effects include gravitational lensing of light from distant galaxies, and production of a certain type of randomness in the cosmic microwave background.

As the name implies, dark matter is assumed to be additional matter in spacetime that does not interact with electromagnetic radiation and thus far has only proved detectable by its gravitational effect. Experiments to date have established this fact quite well. There are projections that, when experiments become sufficiently sensitive, dark matter will prove to be a particle existing in spacetime. If so, it will account for 85 per cent of the matter in the universe. One would think that such a ubiquitous particle would be easy to detect in collisions with ordinary matter, either in particle experiments on Earth or in radiation from similar collisions in galaxies. The absence of such evidence suggests the possibility that effects attributed to some unidentified form of matter in spacetime are actually produced by gravitation interactions from beyond spacetime, across its interface with the dimensionless energy in the other half of a dual universe.

Dark energy and dark matter may be the ultimate hidden variables, hidden outside of spacetime.

Updated 3/31/2017

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