Dual Universe: Science and Religion
           Spacetime and Void


Phases of Creation

        In spite of its obscurity, dimensionless energy can be placed at the origin of spacetime, in the same terms as used for creation scenarios for continuous spacetime. In these, expansive energy and spacetime initially appear from a domain of unknown physical laws (a singularity) in an infinitely curved spacetime. A random fluctuation causes spacetime to uncurl itself with a rapid expansion of energy at an extreme temperature (the Planck temperature, 1.4 x 1032 K). After a few Planck instants, a primal force appears that is a combination of the different forces existing today.

     Then, as the energy cools with expansion of spacetime, gravity separates out, followed at intervals by the other forces. The appearance of each force, and of elementary particles and radiation, represents a change in the physical state of the universe, otherwise known as a phase change. This term originates from events such as water freezing from its liquid phase into the ice of its solid phase.

     The scenario for quantized spacetime is similar. A cooling of the energy of the void causes a phase change that precipitates empty spacetime quanta. In the process, each quantum entraps the energy it has displaced from the void.

first bubbles of spacetime

Spacetime quanta precipitate at random, displacing energy that becomes entrapped as a particle (particle O) in each quantum.

This is an event that occurs at only one specific level of energy in the void, namely, that where a Planck mass black hole has the dimensions of a spacetime quantum. But the quantum has no internal dimensions (its diameter is the smallest possible dimension) so it can enfold only dimensionless particles. The quantum therefore captures the energy equivalent of the black hole, transforming it into a particle of the Planck mass. This is the original particle of the universe, particle O.

small bubble rafts

When emerging spacetime quanta contact at random, the gravitational pull of their internal particles locks them together in small clumps.

    As the initial phase change continues, a heavy. random, chaotic, spacetime foam appears, made up of separated individual quanta. Particle O within each quantum provides a strong mutual gravitational attraction between quanta when they touch. Small rafts of quanta form, from which larger clumps aggregate. These provide a sufficient spacetime for O particles to begin to travel between quanta and merge to form black holes in their limited spacetime domain.

    As time passes and larger clumps form and come into contact, there is now sufficient spacetime for smaller black holes to evaporate into radiation.

beginning of island dormation

As larger clumps grow, randomness remains, but spaces between quanta are locations for further precipitation, so aggregation into a larger lattice continues.


As the competitive processes of merger and evaporation continue, the larger clumps link gravitationally into islands, dominated by the largest black hole and full of radiation from evaporated black holes. The radiation dissolves into pairs of particles of various masses, which repetitively cycle back into radiation. As further precipitation of quanta continues the initial islands merge until a complete spacetime lattice is formed. Then, the time intervals of the quanta become synchronized by a cooperative process, and a four-dimensional universe starts to expand.

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