## Reducing Randomness

Quantized spacetime not only leads to a dual universe and an alternative view of cosmology, it also presents a radical view of quantum behavior. At present, the properties attributed to elementary particles do not make sense. At one moment a particle is a single point, at another it is a spread-out wave. These are mutually exclusive properties. The contradiction is removed if spacetime is quantized.

At normal levels of observation, particles like photons and electrons moving in the absence of external forces travel in straight lines. At the quantum level, because quanta are surrounded by a dimensionless void, these particles can move only via the 12 or fewer contacts between quanta. In any sequence of quanta, these contacts are not aligned. A photon might start off heading due south then find in the next quantum that the most accessible exit contact is south east. To change to that direction will require an additional increment of momentum. To continue, the particle must gain that increment from somewhere.

*Randomness that develops in the path of a particle moving freely
in the absence of external forces will grow, causing major deflections
or closed paths unless a path correction process opertes to implement
the principle of least action*.

The necessity to deviate like this moves a photon off its path
in a different direction each time it passes from quantum to quantum. If
uncorrected, the cumulative deviation of a particle would grow
exponentially with the number of quanta traversed. Even when traveling a
millionth of a millimeter, a particle passes through some 10^{26} quanta.
Since we see that groups of photons travel in a straight line, with
perhaps some residual quantum randomness, these cumulative deviations
are corrected in some way that satisfies conservation of energy and
momentum.

Physically, the correction required cannot be gained at each deviation, because this would involve an energy-time interval (the action) very much smaller than the Planck minimum quantum of action. Therefore, an extended sequence of deviations will occur until a correcting action takes place

As in the movement of a rising and falling rock, a particle’s deviation towards an available contact can be achieved by a donation to its momentum of an increment of potential energy/momentum. When these donations to its kinetic energy accumulate to the minimum quantum of action, their sum must be paid back to the energy source. Up to this point the particle will be well off its correct track. However, the cumulative payback it now makes in energy/momentum will take it back to close to the correct path. The deviation will be reduced to the level of randomness observed in quantum physics.

The source of potential energy/momentum that enables this guidance can only be the negative pressure of the void at the spacetime interface. The conditions of transfer and return are, however, extremely challenging. A cumulative correction for a particle’s random deviations in four dimensions builds up in the void. It is traveling in parallel with the particle which, if it is a photon, will be moving at the speed of light. No forecast of where the particle might go next is possible; the point where the return of energy/momentum will be required cannot be forecast either.