## 1 Introduction

Quantizing space and time would plunge us into an ocean of spacetime bubbles, each tiny sphere portraying the smallest length in the universe and the smallest possible time. These are the Planck length and the Planck time. The bubbles are pieces of spacetime, the unity of space and time uncovered by Albert Einstein. These spacetime quanta provide a local space and time for the building blocks of the universe, elementary particles. Scientists on other planets would recognize the dimensions of spacetime quanta immediately, because they are based on fundamental features of the universe, including the speed of light. In fact, the smallest length divided by the smallest time is the speed of light. And it defines the maximum speed in the universe.

* A cross-section of the matrix of spacetime
quanta showing randomness and gaps between quanta. Quantum diameter is
the Planck Length.*

To locate the position and motion of elementary particles, spacetime
quanta would have three dimensions of space and one of time. They would
be far smaller than the proton at the center of the hydrogen atom. The
proton checks in with a diameter of a trillionth of a millimeter (10^{-15}
m). It is composed of eleven rapidly moving elementary particles. At any
instant, each occupies
its own spacetime quantum. But to create the proton, the particles would
need a volume of ten thousand trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion,
spacetime quanta (10^{52}). Most of the 10^{180} quanta that fill the universe
are empty. This provides plenty of room for action. And the
universe is a very lively place.

At the birth of the universe, gravity would pack spacetime quanta into a tight cosmic matrix that maps the actions of the universe’s 29 types of elementary particles. The quanta would make contact with each other at points where they would pass particles to one another though their zero-thickness membranes. This is the type of membrane that separates two media that do not mix. Being spherical would ensure that whatever direction a particle moves through a quantum, it always moves the same distance. This symmetry would ensure there is no preferred direction for movement throughout the universe. Which is what we observe over long distances.

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*
. . .is license to dare anything even to keep the moon
. . .*