## 4 Black Shells

Quantized spacetime sets a limit to the number of infinite steps that Zeno can foist upon us. This is also true for so-called black holes. Quantized spacetime does not allow them to be holes, any more than it allows Achilles to trail in a race with a tortoise. Spacetime quanta seal the black surface when gravity crushes each quantum to a zero-thickness circle, knitting them together to creating a spherical shell. This removes the internal singularity fleeing down the hole from the laws of physics. There is no hole to stabilize.

A massive enough star will be crushed by its own gravity into a black shell. This starts when the outward flow of heat from nuclear reactions within the star can no longer overcome gravity’s pull toward its center. Gravitationally, the whole mass of any star acts as if it were concentrated at a single point at its center. In the collapse, the star mass accelerates inwards along radii symmetrically aligned towards the center, compressing the infalling mass and raising its internal pressure and temperature.

For such a star, Kip Thorne has shown that the infalling material becomes spherically symmetrical as the collapse speeds up. By this time it has reached the state of a high-temperature plasma like the interior of the sun. So, the spacetime quanta become arranged in symmetrical nested spherical shells. The radial gravitational field to the center squeezes each quantum in the direction of the star center to a greater degree as the star center is approached. At right angles to the radius of the star, to a first approximation, the local diameter of each spacetime quantum remains at the Planck length.

Ultimately, the field squeezes the diameter of each spacetime quantum in the smallest shell down to zero in the direction of the star center. These quanta form the innermost shell of the spherical nest of spacetime quantum shells. Each quantum in this terminal shell becomes a zero-thickness circular disk facing the center of the star. It still functions as a spacetime quantum, as these are defined as having a zero-thickness membrane. Beyond it in the direction of the center there are no spacetime quanta. It is a region with no spacetime dimensions, an extension of the gaps between spherical spacetime quanta in the rest of the spacetime matrix.

The terminal shell brings the infalling material to a violent halt, sending shock waves back to the exterior surface, setting off a supernova explosion. Internally, at the final collapsed sphere of quanta, the only direction particles can move is across the spherical surfaces of terminally collapsed quanta disks.

As more particles crash to a halt at the terminal sphere, it expands and moves back into the matrix by incorporating the quanta of the newly stopped particles that now follow the previous particles sideways into the expanding terminal shell. The process repeats until the terminal shell contains the mass of the original star. 8/28/2020 7:13 4

* . . .
the street musical thought with concentration as its
. . . *