Quantized Spacetime

star field

5  Universe Origin

Because spacetime is expanding, the domain it is expanding into has no spacetime dimensions. The way the expansion is taking place, with expansion rate increasing with distance from the observer, indicates that the expansion is occurring uniformly throughout the universe itself. It is  fueled by continuous emergence of quanta from the energy of hyperspace throughout the universe. If the rate of expansion over 13.8 billion years has been roughly constant, then spacetime originated at that time with emergence the first spacetime quanta out of a field of hyperspace energy with no spacetime dimensions.

The initial spacetime quanta probably precipitated as spheres, comparable to steam bubbles or water droplets, during a phase change in hyperspace energy of essentially zero entropy. To generate a universe of the current size, spread out uniformly on a large scale, an exponential growth in quantum numbers would have occurred. Then, because the current expansion indicated by recession of the galaxies is uniform throughout the universe, the exponential phase came rapidly to a halt.

To provide energy and matter for a new spacetime universe, I assume each original quantum bubble captured the hyperspace energy it displaced. As the quantum diameter derives from the Planck mass, that was probably the energy captured. It would contract into a dimensionless elementary particle, like those confined by quanta today -- photons, electrons, quarks and other elementary particles.

Initial precipitation of quanta

Initial precipitation of spacetime quanta.

Clumps  of quanta form

Spacetime quanta form into clumps. A hierarchical process of aggregation takes place. Local spacetimes come into synchronism as clumps combine.

There were no dimensions to give a pattern to the precitative emergence of quanta. When dimensions formed, the quanta would found to be distributed randomly and moving randomly. Small groups of quanta would form accidentally, not pulled together by gravity until members of a group synchronized their time impulses. Then this emerging local gravity would capture other spacetime quanta when they accidentally contacted a synchronized group.

Initial gravitational groups combined randomly, followed by formation of larger groups from these. Subsequent repetitions led to the single spacetime we recognize today, with its hierarchy extending from dust to star systems, to galaxies, to galaxy clusters, to superclusters. But, as the collisions between quanta were random, the matrix of quanta has a degree of randomness in its structure.

Randomness in Matrix structure

Because spacetime quanta merged randomly, contact randomness remained after tight packing formed a spacetime matrix.

New particles appeared when clumps of quanta grew enough for gravity to form primordial black wholes. Like black holes in continuous spacetime, these spheres would evaporate immediately, exploding into particles of lower mass, charged particle pairs, or quanta of radiation. The essential components of an evolving universe.

The clumping of spacetime regions initiated protogalaxies within a unified spacetime that continued to expand. A universe immersed in hyperspace emerged and evolved through successively lower energy regimes to create the particles and forces in spacetime today. 6/3/2020

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