Quantized Spacetime

star field

7 Quantum Behavior

In quantum mechanics, particle deviations from the correct track are often examined in beams of photons or electrons. Individual particle deviations in a beam are not synchronized in space or time, so a random pattern of deviation size and direction appears when a beam of very low intensity (individual photons, say)  is interrupted by a screen. Some photons hit at minimum deviation, others at any deviation up to a maximum, in a normal distribution. Consequently, in continuous spacetime, particle behavior appears to be inherently random. In QST the randomness arises from the established structure of the spacetime matrix, and in that sense is deterministic rather than random.

The guiding wave correcting particle randomness is seen when a beam of photons is sent through two parallel slits. At low intensities of particle flow, the photons arrive at random positions on a screen beyond the slits, indicating the degree of randomness to be corrected. But as photon arrival continues, they merge into a pattern of standing waves on the screen, indicating guidance by two interacting waves leaving the slits. The source of these identical waves can only be a single guiding wave of the same wavelength, split in two waves by the slits.

In its operation, the guiding wave cancels out particle deviations between two stationary points located close together, indicating that it is steering the particles according to the least-action principle. That is, out of the billions of potential paths, each particle is taken along the one that requires the least expenditure of kinetic and potential energy when these are summed over time.

The guiding wave implements the laws of conservation of linear energy and momentum. It is therefore likely to be the source of the laws of conservation of angular energy and momentum for particles in rotating systems, in which similar path deviations will occur. In this case, another property of the interaction between hyperspace and spacetime becomes evident.

While hyperspace gains access to three spacetime dimensions at its interface with spacetime, spacetime gains access to the absence of dimensions in hyperspace. Lacking spacetime dimensions, all hyperspace is at the same location. This provides the basis for particle entanglement.

Gamma ray radiation spontaneously converts into a pair of entangled particles moving in opposite directions. Each particle has electrical charge, and linear and angular momentum in the opposite sense to the other. So, no net energy or momentum is added to spacetime. But if this balance is upset by a measurement on one particle that changes its spin, the other particle’s spin instantly undergoes a matching change preserving conservation of angular momentum, no matter how great the particle separation.

If at the time of the change of spin that particle was on Earth and the other on a distant star, an observer on the star would know without delay that a measurement had been made on Earth. Spacetime’s access to a hyperspace with no dimension of time or space makes this behavior of entangled particles possible.

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