## 7 Special Relativity

If mass particles are to average speeds slower than light in quantized spacetime, they must still make a mixture of pauses at zero speed and transfers at light speed to achieve the average speed. The transfers, however, require bosons, which are massless and ageless. How can fermions meet these restrictions? I assume they lose their mass and stop aging to make each transfer. A reduction of aging with speed is computed by Einstein’s special relativity as time dilation, which has been confirmed experimentally.

In quantized spacetime, a reduction of aging arises when a particle enters a quantum in transfer state from one in a pause state, because aging can only occur in the pause state. As speed goes up, pauses get fewer and there are fewer quantum intervals for aging. Spacetime arithmetic requires that the square of the time in pauses plus the square of the time in transfers equals the square of the total time in the pattern of pauses and transfers that creates the speed. This produces the same equation in quantized spacetime for calculating the reduction in aging as the one for calculating reduction in aging in continuous spacetime.

In special relativity, mass is not predicted to decrease as speed goes up, but to increase, and this too is confirmed experimentally. The explanation in quantized spacetime is as follows. Particle mass is measured in the pause state, as is the radioactive lifetime of the particle. When a particle transfers between quanta, its mass is removed together with aging time. The latter is replaced by transfer time. To avoid breaking the law of conservation of energy (mass being energy) the mass in the remaining intrinsic quanta, after particles in transfer quanta have lost their mass, must increase. This is the increase experimentally observed. It is inversely proportional to the number of intrinsic quanta remaining. This is how quantized spacetime calculates the mass increase effect of special relativity, the answer being the same as the standard calculation.

It also provides the same values for relativistic mass and momentum, raising again the question of how a particle with mass can move at the speed of light. The answer may be that in one quantum interval the action of a transfer is below the Planck constant, and the energy borrowed for the transfer is returned after the transfer. If so, transfers at light speed become as acceptable in quantized spacetime as virtual particles are in continuous spacetime. 8/14/2020 5:54 7

* . . .the
spirit in search of syllables to shoot the barriers of . . .*